Nutrition therapy for diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood glucose concentrations resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both.
Diabetes is diagnosed and classified based on the results of appropriate medical and laboratory tests. After
extensive review of the literature and improved standardization of the assay in 2009, the Expert Committee on Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus has approved the use of the A1C test for diagnosing diabetes mellitus. The classification of diabetes mellitus includes four clinical classes.
- type 1 diabetes type of diabetes that usually occurs in persons younger than 30 years of age but can occur at any age; previously known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes
- type 2 diabetes type of diabetes usually occurring in per-sons older than 30 years of age, previously known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or maturity-onset diabetes; now also frequently diagnosed in youth and young adults
- gestational diabetes mellitus any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. It occurs in 7% of all pregnant women, resulting in more than 200,00 cases annually. Gestational diabetes mellitus is usually diagnosed during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. At this point, insulin antagonist hormone levels increase and insulin resistance normally occurs.
Treatment for diabetes mellitus
The goals for the treatment of diabetes are
- maintain blood glucose within fairly normal range
- achieve optimal blood lipid level
- control blood pressure
- support health and well being
- treat complications
- Workout acceptable goals for managing the disease through accurate assessment and monitoring of the person’s diet physical activity and health status.
- Plan and adjust therapy based on medical needs, motivation level, educational ability and lifestyle.
- Successful diabetes education takes time and must be flexible to accommodate the changing needs.
- Low glycemic index diet
- Fiber rich diet
- Healthy carbohydrate
- Good fats
- Controlled sodium intake
- Avoid alcohol consumption
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