Nutrition During Pregnancy
The requirement for energy intake is increased during pregnancy for every single nutrient. A woman’s nutritional needs change when she is pregnant. She needs more folic acid, iron, and calcium. She also needs more calories. Here are some tips for eating a healthy diet during pregnancy.
Weight gain during pregnancy:
The recommended gain for a woman who begins pregnancy at
- Healthy weight 25-35 pounds gain (11-15 kg)
- Underweight 28-40 pounds’ gain
- Overweight 15-25 pounds’ gain
Weight gain pattern
- During 1st trimester 31/2 pounds
- Each week thereafter 1-pound weight gain
Factors that influence weight gain during pregnancy are
- Blood volume increases
- Amniotic fluid increases
- Placenta increases
- Fetus weight increases
Nutrition during pregnancy:
- Fetal growth and pregnancy demand additional nutrients
- Prominent changes during pregnancy
- Uterus enlarges and strengthen
- Blood volume increases to carry extra nutrients and material
- Joints become more flexible
- Feel swelling in response to estrogen hormone as fluid retention helps in delivery.
- Breast enlargement for the preparation of milk.
Metabolic rate increase by 15 % in pregnancy. Nutritionally dense foods are more required than energy needs.
The 2002 DRIs for energy are
- 1st trimester 0 kcal/day
- 2nd trimester +340 kcal/day
- 3rd trimester +450 kcal/day
- Whole grain cereals
- Dark green vegetables
- Citrus fruits
- Low fat milk and milk products
- High fiber foods
- First half of pregnancy 0.66 g/kg/day
- Second half of pregnancy 71 g/day
- During entire pregnancy +25 g/day
Get enough protein intake by selecting
- Milk products
- Plant foods such as legumes, whole grains, nuts and seeds
Essential fatty acids:
- Long-chain poly unsaturated fatty acids are important to the growth and development of fetus.
- Brain depends upon omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for its growth and for eyes.
How to increase Blood in Pregnancy?
Nutrients for blood production and cell growth:
- Iron 27 mg/day
- Zinc 12 mg/day (<18 years), 11 mg/day (19-50 years)
- Vitamin B12 6 µg/day
- Folate 600 µg/day
Nutrients for Bone Growth:
The AI requirement for the following nutrients do not increase during pregnancy
- Vitamin D
- Folate 400 µg
- Zinc 15 mg/day
- Iron 30 mg/day
- Vitamin C 50 mg/day