A balanced diet is defined as a diet that contains a variety of foods in such quantities and proportions that need energy, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, fats, carbohydrates, and other nutrients is adequately met for maintaining health, vitality, and general wellbeing and also makes a small provision for extra nutrients to withstand the short duration of leanness”.
There are two basic components in appropriate proportion classified as,
These are with a recommended dietary allowance of more than 100mg/day. It includes,
- Lipids (fats/oils)
It is made up of the compounds like carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
- Starch-Cereals, roots, tubers, etc.
- Sugar-Glucose, fructose, galactose, etc.
- Cellulose- Fibers
- 50-70% of energy intake.
- Minimum 300 mg/day is required (1200 kcals).
- The Carbohydrate reserve of an adult is 500 grams.
- Energy provision
- Essential for the synthesis of Amino Acids
- Oxidation of fats
- 4 kcals/gm
Proteins are highly complex nitrogenous substances of colloidal nature. They are compounds of Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen and some contain Sulphur.
- Animal Sources: Milk, eggs, meat, fish, etc.
- Vegetable Sources: Pulses, cereals, beans, oils, seeds, etc.
- 1 gm/kg body weight/day for an adult
- At least 10% of total energy intake should be proteins.
- Minimum 50-60grams per day.
- Anabolism of tissue protein
- Maintain fluid balance
- Formation of immunoglobulin
- Maintain acid-base balance
- Regulate body provisions
- Synthesis of substances antibodies, plasma proteins, hemoglobin, enzymes, and hormones, etc.
TYPES OF PROTEINS:
1) FIRST CLASS PROTEINS- these are animal-source protein that contains all necessary amino acids and are easily digestible.
2) SECOND CLASS PROTEINS- these are vegetable proteins and have low nutritive values.
Like carbohydrates, fats are composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, and oxygen but in different proportions. They contain less Oxygen with more hydrogen and carbon.
- Animal Fats-Ghee, milk, butter, cheese, eggs, fat of fish, and meat.
- Vegetable Fats- Groundnuts, mustard, coconut
- Other Sources- Cereals, pulses, nuts, vegetables, Oil, etc.
- 90-130 mg/day
- 10% minimum from animal fat
- Vegetables oil 1.5 gram/day
- Simple lipids: Triglycerides
- Compound Lipids: Phospholipids
- Derived lipids: Cholesterol
- Provides energy
- Support viscera such as heart, kidney, and intestine and protect them against shock
- Provides thermal insulation against rapid body temperature changes.
These are with a recommended dietary allowance of less than 100mg/day. It includes,
These are unrelated organic substances that occur in many foods in small amounts for the normal metabolic functioning of the body. They are protective food.
CLASSIFICATION OF VITAMINS:
1) Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A- promotes growth and improves resistance to bacterial infections, necessary for vision and normal epithelium.
- Retardation in growth and lowers the body resistance.
- Xerophthalmia, night blindness, and keratomalacia.
- Degeneration of myelin sheath of nerves.
- Vitamin D-it is used in the calcification of bones and teeth.
- Rickets in children
- Pigeon chest
- Osteocalcin in adults
Vitamin E-it is necessary for pregnancy.
- Sterility in animals but never directly implicated in man.
- Threaten abortion in females.
Vitamin K-it helps in blood coagulation.
- Delayed coagulation time and profuse bleeding in slight injuries.
2) Water-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin B1- is also known as thiamine and works as a coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism.
- Loss of appetite
- Carbohydrate metabolism is disturbed
- Pyruvic acid accumulation in the blood.
Vitamin B2 – is also known as riboflavin and forms part of several enzyme systems.
- Lip cracking ant corner of the mouth
- Soreness and tongue cracks.
- Reddishness in eyes.
Vitamin B3 – is called niacin and it is pellagra preventive.
- Pellagra i.e. 3Ds
Vitamin B6 – is often called pyridoxine. It is the coenzyme in amino acids metabolism.
- Weakness and difficulty in walking
- Convulsive seizures in infants
- Burning feet syndrome
Vitamin B12 – is called cobalamin. It participates in hematopoiesis, nucleic acid synthesis, thyroid activity, and ascorbic acid metabolism.
- Improper hematopoiesis causes anemia.
Vitamin C – also known as ascorbic acid. It promotes and helps in the maturation of RBCs and WBCs, helps in wound healing, and regulation of calcium metabolism.
- Dental caries
- Loss of appetite
- Delaying of wound healing
- Tendency to hemorrhage from skin capillaries.
These are classified as,
- Calcium (adults= 0.8 gram / children= 1 gram)
- Iron (10-15 gram)
- Phosphorus (1 gram)
- Magnesium (300-400 mg)
- Potassium (2-4 gram)
- Copper (2mg)
- Iodine (150 mcg/day)
- Manganese (4-10 mg)
- Fluorine (male=4mg/day , female=3mg/day)
- Zinc (11mg)
- Selenium (55 micrograms)
FACTORS AFFECTING NUTRITIONAL NEEDS:
- Physical activity
- Physiological factors
- State of health
WHY SHOULD WE TAKE A BALANCED DIET?
(The role in the human body)
A diet provides the nutrients your body must work with effectively. While not balanced nutrition, your body is a lot liable to unwellness, infection, fatigue, and low performance. Youngsters United Nations agency do not get enough healthy foods might face growth and biological process issues, poor tutorial performance, and frequent infections.