Stroke is a condition in which rapid loss of brain function due to the disturbance in the blood supply to brain. A stroke happens when blood flow to a part of the brain stops and it is sometimes called a brain attack.
Incidence and prevalence of stroke is on the rise due to increasing adoption of unhealthy lifestyle and an increasing life expectancy.
Stroke occurrence depends where and which part of brain is damaged. For example, someone who had a small stroke may only have minor problems such as temporary weakness of an arm or leg. People who have larger stroke may be permanently paralyzed on one side of their body or lose their ability to speak. Some people recover completely from strokes. But more than 2/3 of survivors will have some type of disability.
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There are two main causes of stroke.
- A blocked artery (ischemic stroke)
- Leaking or bursting of blood vessels (hemorrhagic stroke)
- Transient ischemic attack.
Sign and symptoms of Stroke
- Trouble in speaking
- Vision problems
- Numbness of face, arm, leg ( particularly one side of body affected)
- Coordination disturbance
Types of stroke
- Ischemic stroke
- Transient ischemic attack(mini stroke)
5 warning sign of stroke
- Weakness or numbness on one side of body
- Speech difficulty or confusion
- Difficulty seeing in one or both eyes
- Dizziness or loss of balance
- Severe headache with no known Cause
Modifiable risk factor
- Most important risk factor for ischemia stroke
- Atrial fibrillation
- Most important and treatable cardiac cause of stroke
- Other cardiac diseases
- Sickle cell disease
- Asymptomatic carotid stenosis
- Postmenopausal hormone therapy
- Oral contraceptives
- Life style factors associated
- Cigarette smoking
- Physical inactivity
Non-modifiable risk factor
- Gender (more in males)
- Family history of stroke
- Low birth weight
How physiotherapy help in treatment of stroke patient
Physiotherapists play a important role at every stage of the patient pathway. Helping individuals to reach their full physical potential and functional ability and reintegrate into society.
Physiotherapist in lahore are also involved in preventing stroke and stroke recurrence and improving health by promoting healthy active lifestyles. Within a multidisciplinary team, physiotherapists rehabilitate patients from acute care to the home setting. And provide long term community support.
- Bed mobility increase mobility to roll move in bed, sit and stand
- Active exercise
- Active assisted exercise
- Active resisted exercise
- Resisted exercise
- Improve balance and coordination
- Retrain normal patterns of movement
- Increase affected arm and leg function
- Gait training and posture correction
- Increase independence and quality of life
- Reduce risk of fall
Paralysis is the complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscle group. Paralysis often includes loss of feeling in the affected area.
Types of paralysis
- Paralysis is caused by damage to a neuron (nerve supplying to muscle)
- Upper motor neurons convey the message from the brain to the nervous system
- Damage causes an increased tightening in muscle called spasticity
- Lower motor neurons provide the final path for the signal to reach the muscle
- Damage leads to loss of tone called flaccidity
Sign and symptoms
Sudden paralysis is most often caused by injury or stroke.
- Damage to the right side of the brain – paralysis on the left side if the body
- Damage to the spine –equal sided paralysis
- Damage to the lower spine (include both legs/paraplegia)
- Damage from upper level of spine (include all four limbs /quadriplegia)
More symptoms may included
- Numbness, tingling, pain
- Change in vision
- Difficulties with speech
- Problem with balance
- Difficulties in breathing
Who is most affected by the paralysis?
- Strokes (certain types)
- Spinal cord injuries
- Broken necks
- Neurological diseases
- Autoimmune diseases
- Bell’s palsy
How physiotherapy help in treatment of paralysis patient
There is currently no cure to paralysis however there are multiple options available in terms of extensive care and mobility that may improve the lives of patients with paralysis.
Either it is partial or complete paralysis. Physiotherapy plays a major role in the treatment of paralysis patients which enhance the quality of living and decrease the chances of disability.
Therapists treat disabilities that result from motor and sensory impairments. Their aim is to help patients increase their strength and endurance, improve coordination, reduce spasticity and muscle wasting in paralyzed limbs, and regain greater control over bladder and bowel function through various exercises.
They also teach paralyzed patients techniques for using assistive devices such as wheelchairs, canes, or braces as effectively as possible.
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